SHRIRAM SPARK

THINK DIFFERENT

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR, LDR

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR, LDR

One common and interesting application of LDR will be discussed in my next post.

Light dependent resistors or LDRs are often used in circuits where it is necessary to detect the presence or the level of light. They can be described by a variety of names from light dependent resistor, LDR, photoresistor, or even photo cell (photocell) or photoconductor.

A photoresistor or light dependent resistor (LDR) is a resistor whose resistance decreases with

increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity.
A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance.

It is a passive light transducer. It is also called as photoconductive cell because its conductivity changes due to change in light intensity. It is supplied with external power supply. It works as follows – when light falls on it, its resistance decreases and when it is dark, its resistance becomes maximum. Thus, the change in its resistance is directly proportional to intensity of light falling on it. It is made up of photosensitive material like Cadmium Sulphide (CdS), Selenium (Se), Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) or Lead Sulphide (PbS). It is deposited on insulating surface like ceramic substrate in the form of zigzag wire as shown in above figure. It is enclosed in round metallic or plastic case and two terminals are taken out for external connections. The structure is covered with glass sheet to protect it from moisture and dust and allows only light to fall on it.

Although other devices such as photodiodes or photo-transistor can also be used, LDRs are a particularly convenient electronics component to use. They provide large change in resistance for changes in light level.

In view of their low cost, ease of manufacture, and ease of use LDRs have been used in a variety of different applications. At one time LDRs were used in photographic light meters, and even now they are still used in a variety of applications where it is necessary to detect light levels.

A schematic diagram of an LDR.

CdS :  Cadmium Sulphide

What is an LDR or light dependent resistor?

A photoresistor or light dependent resistor is a component that is sensitive to light. When light falls upon it then the resistance changes. Values of the resistance of the LDR may change over many orders of magnitude the value of the resistance falling as the level of light increases.

It is not uncommon for the values of resistance of an LDR or photoresistor to be several megohms in darkness and then to fall to a few hundred ohms in bright light. With such a wide variation in resistance, LDRs are easy to use and there are many LDR circuits available.

LDRs are made from semiconductor materials to enable them to have their light sensitive properties. Many materials can be used, but one popular material for these photoresistors is cadmium sulphide (CdS).

How does an LDR work?

It is relatively easy to understand the basics of how an LDR works without delving into complicated explanations. It is first necessary to understand that an electrical current consists of the movement of electrons within a material. Good conductors have a large number of free electrons that can drift in a given direction under the action of a potential difference. Insulators with a high resistance have very few free electrons, and therefore it is hard to make the them move and hence a current to flow.

An LDR or photoresistor is made any semiconductor material with a high resistance. It has a high resistance because there are very few electrons that are free and able to move – the vast majority of the electrons are locked into the crystal lattice and unable to move. Therefore in this state there is a high LDR resistance.

As light falls on the semiconductor, the light photons are absorbed by the semiconductor lattice and some of their energy is transferred to the electrons. This gives some of them sufficient energy to break free from the crystal lattice so that they can then conduct electricity. This results in a lowering of the resistance of the semiconductor and hence the overall LDR resistance.

The process is progressive, and as more light shines on the LDR semiconductor, so more electrons are released to conduct electricity and the resistance falls further.

Applications

Photoresistors come in many types. Inexpensive cadmium sulphide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters, street lights, clock radios, alarm devices, outdoor clocks, solar street lamps and solar road studs, etc.
They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction and are also used in bed lamps, etc.
Lead sulphide (PbS) and indium antimonide (InSb) LDRs (light dependent resistor) are used for the mid infrared spectral region. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors available, and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy.

 

27 Comments

  1. awesome things here. I am very happy to see your post. Thanks a lot and i am looking forward to keep in touch with you. Will you please drop me a e-mail?

  2. Thanks – Enjoyed this post, is there any way I can receive an email whenever there is a fresh update?

    • Yes surely, all you have to do is to click the follow button on the bottom of the website and enter your Email to get subscribed. Then you’ll receive a mail when there’s a new post

    • Yes all you have to do to satay updated is to click the follow button available in the bottom of the web page, and enter ur mail ID, and then ur updated

  3. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the web the simplest factor to take into accout of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed even as people consider concerns that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the highest as smartly as outlined out the whole thing with no need side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be again to get more. Thanks

    • Thanks a lot for the the appreciation, you can get email notification whenever there’s a new post by clicking the follow button on the bottom of the website and entering your Email to get subscribed.

  4. I enjoy, lead to I discovered exactly what I was having a look for. You’ve ended my four day lengthy hunt! God Bless you man. Have a nice day. Bye

  5. Unquestionably believe that which you stated. Your favorite reason appeared to be on the internet the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they just don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  6. Thanks in support of spending the calculate to argue this, I in truth consider solidly in relation to it and adore rendition further resting on this topic. Proviso possible, as you expand to live an skilled, would you mind updating your blog with added details?

  7. I absolutely love your blog and find the majority of your post’s to be just what I’m looking for. Do you offer guest writers to write content available for you? I wouldn’t mind creating a post or elaborating on a number of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome web site!

  8. Hey very nice web site!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I will bookmark your web site and take the feeds also I am happy to find so many useful information here in the post, we need work out more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  9. A lot of what you point out happens to be astonishingly appropriate and it makes me wonder why I had not looked at this in this light before. This particular piece truly did turn the light on for me as far as this topic goes. Nevertheless at this time there is actually 1 position I am not really too cozy with so whilst I make an effort to reconcile that with the main theme of your position, allow me observe just what the rest of your readers have to say.Well done.

  10. As a Newbie, I am constantly searching online for articles that can benefit me. Thank you

  11. Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your site in internet explorer, would test this. IE still is the market leader and a huge portion of people will miss your great writing due to this problem.

  12. Thanks a lot for the positive comments, and don’t forget to click the follow button on the bottom side of the website and enter your Email-ID so that you’ll stay updated of the latest posts. Stay tuned for more interesting posts.

  13. Thanks, and don’t forget to follow my weblog by clicking on follow on the bottom of the website.

  14. Your home is valuable for me. Thanks!…

  15. Hi there! Where did you download theme of your blog? It’s amazing 😉

  16. Hello there, I found your website by means of Google whilst looking for a comparable topic, your web site got here up, it seems to be good. I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

  17. I am always looking online for articles that can help me. Thx!

  18. I critically enjoy your posts. Thank you

  19. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit my
    comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again.
    Regardless, just wanted to say excellent blog!

  20. Great put up, very informative. I ponder why
    the other experts of this sector don’t notice this.

    You must continue your writing. I’m confident,
    you have a great readers’ base already!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

*

© 2018 SHRIRAM SPARK

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑